Bomb shelters are designed with the main purpose of protecting people in the event of a nuclear war. But how do you air condition or heat a bomb shelter without depending on electricity? The most common methods for air conditioning are passive cooling, evaporative cooling, solar-powered cooling, and natural ventilation. The leading techniques for heating the shelter are geothermal heating, biomass stoves, passive solar heating, fuel-powered heaters, and emergency heating.
Various political tensions characterize the current state of the world and could lead to nuclear catastrophe at any time. According to Martin Hellman, a professor emeritus of electrical engineering at Stanford University, “Not knowing the level of risk is a gaping hole in our national security strategy. So why does society behave as if nuclear deterrence were essentially risk-free?”
Whether nuclear deterrence is successful or not, the best we can do is prepare for the worst-case scenario – a human-triggered nuclear disaster. I have researched multiple methods to stay safe in a nuclear event, including designing bomb shelters and methods to heat and air condition them without electricity.
After a brief history of fallout shelters, I will explain the characteristics of buildings that qualify them to be designated as fallout shelters. The bunker design is incomplete without the right kind of ventilation. Let’s explore the common methods of air conditioning for heat bomb shelters.
What Is A Fallout Shelter?
Fallout shelters have been part of American culture since 1949, inspired by the threat of nuclear attacks after the end of the Second World War. It is a structure designed to protect its occupants during a nuclear war and its aftermath.
The typical shelter provided by the US government during the Cold War was built using concrete and steel and inserted into the earth for comprehensive protection. Those who couldn’t afford this project made a makeshift shelter under the crawlspace of their houses. Few others marked out a corner of their basement to serve the purpose.
American pop culture in the 50s and 60s increased concern about nuclear war and raised interest in fallout shelters. The federal and state governments sponsored various civil programs to increase American optimism about the chances of surviving a nuclear attack.
Buildings As Fallout Shelters
During the Cold War, a program designated various buildings as fallout shelters. These buildings were required to satisfy specific conditions, including the following.
- Physical protection: Buildings need to be airtight with thick concrete walls. They must have a protection factor of 40, meaning that you would receive only 1/40th of the radiation if you were inside the building compared to outside.
- Distance from the fallout: The building should have space far from the fallout. Basements in schools and middle floors of tall buildings typically meet these requirements.
- Room for people: The building should have room for at least 50 people with a minimum of 10 square feet of space for each person.
Common Methods To Air Condition Or Heat A Bomb Shelter
Now that we understand the basic requirements for buildings to serve as fallout shelters, let’s explore the common methods you can use to air condition or heat a bomb shelter.
You can use five easy heating techniques to channel warmth into your bomb shelter:
|Geothermal heating||The earth’s surface stores tremendous heat maintained at a stable temperature. Install underground pipes and ducts to circulate air from the warm earth into the bomb shelter.|
|Biomass stoves||Incorporate a smoke exhaust with ventilation in your shelter. This enables you to use a wood-burning or biomass stove to generate heat.|
|Passive solar heating||In your bunker design, incorporate transparent panels and windows to capture and retain solar heat during the day. Materials within your shelter will have a certain degree of thermal mass, which is the ability of materials to absorb, store, and release heat. This will capture heat during the day and release it at night.|
|Fuel-powered heaters||Use propane or kerosene heaters to generate heat within your shelter. These methods require additional fuel supplies, and you’ll have to maintain an inventory of these supplies in your bunker.|
Emergency Heating Methods
Camp stoves and candles in your bomb shelter can be used as emergency heating options. These options are a fire hazard risk and must be utilized with caution. I recommend four simple air conditioning methods to cool your bunker if the outside temperature requires cooling instead of heating.
|Passive cooling||Use enough concrete in the construction of your fallout shelter. Concrete has high thermal mass and will absorb heat during sunlight and release it at night. This provides a cooling effect. Create shading at the shelter entrance using vegetation and awnings to cut sunlight exposure|
|Evaporative cooling||You can set up a DIY evaporative cooling system by placing wet cloths and sheets in the path of incoming air sources. The moist fabric will cool the air that passes through it. Use zeer pots, also known as pot-in-pot refrigerators, which are evaporative coolers made using two clay pots with water-soaked sand between them. They absorb heat from the surrounding area, creating a cooling effect.|
|Solar-powered cooling||Use solar chimneys in your bunker design to channel sunlight and create a draft that draws air through the shelter. This causes suction at the chimney base due to warm air rising. Enhance airflow by installing solar-powered panels and ventilation systems. The fans will expel hot air and cool the interior of the shelter.|
|Natural ventilation||Position vents and openings to take advantage of prevailing winds and natural airflow. Expel hot air and continuously draw in fresh air by installing wind-driven turbines.|
Atlas Survival Shelters
I have researched the market to find easily installable shelters to protect me and my family in case of nuclear fallout. Atlas Survival Shelters offers a cool product called ATLAS SAFE CELLARS™ that can be easily installed under the concrete floor of a new house.
ATLAS SAFE CELLARS™ caters to your specific needs and provides a safe room, a wine cellar, a gun room, and a tornado cellar. You can also choose to equip it with the Nuclear Biological Chemical (NBC) Warfare package that serves as a modern NBC shelter. This will protect you and your family in biological or nuclear warfare.
Nobody wishes for nuclear or biological warfare, and I’m certain you don’t spend the best hours of your day imagining life in a bomb shelter. But you now know how to incorporate important design elements in your shelter to keep it safe and temperate. In these types of extreme warfare, the likelihood of toxicity in the air is high. Incorporating air conditioning and heating methods in your bomb shelter will protect you and your family from contamination in an adverse event and help you survive unharmed.
How to air condition a bomb shelter without electricity?
You can use four simple techniques to air condition a bomb shelter without electricity:
- Passive cooling
- Evaporative cooling
- Solar-powered cooling
- Natural ventilation
How do you heat a bomb shelter without electricity?
You can use five simple techniques to heat a bomb shelter without electricity:
- Geothermal heating
- Biomass stoves
- Passive solar heating
- Fuel-powered heaters
- Emergency heating methods
What is a fallout shelter?
A fallout shelter, inspired by the threat of nuclear attacks after the Second World War, is designed to protect its occupants during a nuclear war and its aftermath.
What requirements should buildings meet to be designated a fallout shelter?
Buildings should meet three requirements to be designated as a fallout shelter.
- They should be airtight with thick concrete walls and have protection factors 40. This implies that you will be exposed to only 1/40th of the radiation if you are inside the building compared to outside.
- The building should have spaces at a considerable distance from the fallout.
- If public, the building should have room for at least 50 people with a minimum of 10 square feet of space for each person.